London was actually established by the Romans, who originally named it Londonium in the 4th century CE. At the time, London had around 50 thousand inhabitants, owing its dense population numbers to the proximity and importance of its nearby pier. During the 5th century, many Anglo-Saxon invasions took place with the goal of taking the region away from Roman control. In the 7th century, the city became the capital of the Kingdom of Essex.
In the 9th century, England fell victim to numerous invasions by the Vikings, and London was no exception. The city and the whole country saw many Danish immigrants come at the time, who contributed a lot to the development of trade in the region. Many merchants and artificers opened stores in London, making it the urban center of England. The city’s potential drew attention of Danish King Alfred The Great, who officially conquered London in 886.
In 1067, the newly-crowned King of England, Willian of Normandy, after conquering England for Normandy, established law in England, including privileges and rules that were officially accepted in the city, and it was at this time that the London Tower was constructed.
In 1199, King John of England strenghtened the city’s local jurisdiction system, and 1215 saw the implementation of a law that enabled Londoners to pick a new mayor every year.
However, it is important to note that London was not always the capital of England. In fact, England didn’t have a capital for a long time. A key step to this becoming so was the moving of English institutions to Westminster, a city near London. This action, combined with the rise of trade in the city were key factors to the rise of London and its official recognition as England’s capital.
During the 14th century, London and its main pier became the central hub of distribution of goods to the whole of Europe. In the 15th century, textile trade was the most important economic factor of the coutry. The expansion of trade routes from England lead to a sharp rise in population numbers, which is obvious by the fact that, in the 8th century, London had 100 thousand inhabitants, whereas in the mid-17th century, this number jumped to 500 thousand.
At the end of the 17th century, London was struck by an outbreak of the plague, which killed more than 70 thousand people, and famine and overall poor living conditions became prominent in the city as a consequence. To make matters worse, The Great Fire of 1666 saw most of the city’s buildings turn to ash, and even though people began rebuilding the city quickly, the process lasted for decades. During the rebuilding of London, buildings like Saint Paul’s Cathedral and many more monumental sites were erected, which all made the city a rising cultural and social center of England at the time.
Apart from everything mentioned, London was further developed thanks to the advancements made in the financial sector, as well as the opening of The Bank of England in 1694. This institution is the second oldest central bank, younger only by the Bank of Sweden, and it was surely the backbone of the development of London into what it is now.
Most of what can be seen around London was constructed during the Victorian Era. Up until the 19th century, London only took up what used to be the Roman city of Londonium, surrounded by greenery, but the start of The Industrial Revolution brought many people to London, which, unfortunately, made the consequences of the ensuing cholera epidemic of 1832 catastrophic to the city and its populus.
During the 19th century, London numbered 4,5 million inhabitants, a number which would rise to 6 million in the 20th century. At the end of the 19th century, London became the main international trade and financial center.
Population numbers in the capital began to dwindle at the end of World War One, with the number of people being reduced to under 3.5 million in 1950. Contrary to this, population numbers in the suburbs of the city constantly grew, and in 1963, a new division of London was created,consisting from the old city and 32 additional sections.
Today, London numbers 9 million inhabitants, and is a multi-national and multi-cultural haven for people from all around the world.
London is a unique European town located on the shores of the river Thames. It is the seat of the Government of The United Kingdom, as well as the main financial center of the country and Europe alike. You could say that the city is located at a favorable place in the south of England, a city that has always been densely populated and located in the wealthiest part of the country. Known for its acrhitecture, bustling lifestyle, London is a city that people either love or hate too much and you can absoultely say that it is a city of contrast in this regard.