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The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a white marble belfry of a cathedral. It is known for its uneven foundation, which is why it was at one point tilted at an angle of 5.5 degrees (about 4.5 meters). The tower of Pisa is one of the most famous buildings in the world, having been built in stages over a period of nearly two hundred years. The construction started in August 1173 as the third and last building of the city church complex and it was meant to be 56 meters high. When only the first two floors were constructed (out of seven floors), it was noticed that the base of the tower was sinking into a soft surface. Further construction works were continued and interrupted on many occasions as engineers were searching for a solution. Eventually, the tower, still somewhat tilted, was completed in 1372.
Piazza del Duomo or Piazza dei Miracoli (the Square of Wonders) represents the most important cultural and artistic center of the city of Pisa. The square was enlisted among UNESCO world heritage sites in 1987. On this square, there are three main monuments that form the center of cultural and religious lives of inhabitants of Pisa: The Cathedral, the Baptistery and the Tower of Pisa.
The Cathedral of Pisa represents one of the greatest masterpieces of Italian architecture. Founded in 1064 and consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasio II, the Cathedral of Pisa was built in two stages: the first phase included the work of architect Buscheto, who created the original exterior of the Cathedral with four aisles and one nave and the dome on the cross vault. Architect Rainaldo who additionally extended the facade and in so doing completed the second stage of the construction. The Cathedral of Pisa was founded in the very same place where the Byzantine Church stood dedicated to Santa Reparata.
Camposanto Monumentale or Monumental Cemetery is a historical cemetery located in the Miracoli square in Pisa. The word "Camposanto" stands for a holy field because it is was originally constructed in Holy Land and brought to Pisa in the 12th century in the wake of the Fourth Crusade. The bodies buried in this soil are believed to rot in 24 hours.
Piazza dei Cavalieri used to be an ancient forum in Pisa. Forums, in the Roman Empire, represented the center of cultural, social and political life in the society at the time. When Pisa was an independent republic this square was named "the seven streets" because seven streets merged in this place.