First inhabitants of Kotor were the Romans. At that time, the city of Kotor was called Acruvium and it was first mentioned in 168 BC. The walls of Kotor were first built by the Illyrians and Romans, but the "final touch" was given by the Venetians. Emperor Justinian I built a fort above the city in 535 BC.
In 800 the city was invaded by the Saracens. In 809 BC, the Cathedral of St. Trifun was constructed. After his burial, the remains of Saint Trifun were brought to Kotor from Constantinople. Throughout its rich history, Kotor was under the rule of Zeta in Serbia, when the city was one of the most significant trading cities in the State of Nemanjici. Later, the city was under the Bosnian, Hungarian, Austrian, French and Venetian rule.
Kotor was an independent city-republic from 1391 to 1420, but because of the increasing number of Ottoman attacks, the city sought assistance of the Republic of Venice. During this period, Kotor fell under the rule of the mighty Venetian Republic. Kotor was under the rule of the Venetian Republic from 1420 until 1797. The golden age of Kotor - the time of construction of magnificent palaces, ships, the flourishing of maritime affairs, commerce, crafts - has been associated with almost 300 years of the Venetian rule. Thanks to a good fortification system, the Ottomans never conquered the city.
Kotor can be reached through three gates. The most famous one is the Sea Gate, built in front of the old town - a direct entrance to the old town (from the sea side). The other two doors are the Gurdic door and the North door, the so-called Tabacina.
The walls that surround the city are 5 kilometers long, and at the top of these walls, after climbing 1,350 steps, at 280m above the sea level, lies the fortress of San Giovanni with an astonishing view of Kotor and the entire bay.
The Kotor squares, there were 7 in total, were the meeting points of Kotor inhabitants, a place for selling fruits, vegetables and weapons as well. Within the walls of this small town there are 2 Orthodox and 6 Catholic churches, a Franciscan monastery, a cathedral, a theater, a cinema, an old pharmacy from the 13th century, an old clock on the main square (which is a symbol of all medieval cities), noble palaces, a school, a college as well as the narrowest street in the town called "Let me pass."
Kotor is home to a 500 year old carnival under masks, home to delicious cuisine and to Bokelj Nights. The Kotor Navy was established in Kotor in 809 as the oldest seafaring fraternity in the Adriatic, and is one of the oldest in the world.
In 809, when the relics of St. Trypun arrived in Kotor, the Kotorans proclaimed him the patron saint of the city. The same year the Boka Navy was founded - Boka Navy also being the keeper of the keys to the city of Kotor. Since its founding until today, the Boka Navy has had a memorial, a military and ahumanitarian purpose, and as such, it has operated under one motto only: Faith and Honor!
On April 15 1979, Kotor was hit by a catastrophic earthquake that destroyed most of the old town. Kotorans managed to rebuild the destroyed buildings using the damaged stones. After the earthquake, each republic of the former Yugoslavia earmarked a part of the funds to help the town of Kotor in the reonstruction. And this is something that Kotor has never forgotten, so the entrance to the city walls is free of charge for all the local tourists, that is visitors from the countries of former Yugoslavia. Kotor has been under UNESCO protection since 1979, thus proclaimimg any additional construction is illegal, leaving the city remain the same forever.
Interesting facts: In Italy (the Veneto region) there is an old humorous saying that at some point every man says to his woman, through which it can be noted how important Kotor was in the Venetian Republic:
"You cost me more than the walls of Kotor".
Perast is home to some of the most beautiful palaces along the Adriatic coast. This is the city of steep stone streets, flower giards, the city of churchs, the city of closed jalouisies, tncredible islands of St. George and Our Lady of the Rocks, the city of legends, seafaring and glorious captains. Least, but not last, Perast is home of the famous Peras Cake. This old baroque city has attracted many writers, poets, actors and painters with his charm. Intoxicated, they become in love with this little miracle located on the Adriatic shore.
Risan is the oldest settlement in Boka Kotorska. It is located at the northern point of the bay. Risan is an ideal place for holidays for young people, but also for families with children, because this village is never crowded even during the summer season. The most important tourist attractions in Risan are Roman mosaics from the third century BC, Monastery Banja, the church of St. George and the church of St. Peter and Paul. On the hill Gradina above Risan, there are the remains of the old Illyrian castle.
Boka Kotorska or simply Boka (in Italian Bocce di Cattaro) is the largest bay of the Adriatic Sea. It consists of four bays: The Bay of Herceg Novi, Tivat Bay, Risan Bay and Kotor Bay. The length of Bokakotorska Bay is 116 kilometers. The maximum depth of the bay is 60 meters. Boka Kotorska is the only fjord in the Mediterranean, surrounded by high mountains Orjen and Lovcen. There are countless small fishing villages and 3 major cities in the bay: Herceg Novi, Tivat and Kotor, as well as 7 islands: Mamula, Our Lady of Mercy, Vedvedje, Saint George, Our Lady of the Rocks and the Island of Flowers. There are also two peninsulas here: Luštica and Vrmac.
Kotor is a medieval old town known as Montenegrin Venice. Kotor is one of the best preserved old towns and is located in one of the 25 most beautiful bays in the world. The town is 13 centuries old, but on the site of present-day Kotor, people settled much earlier. Surrounded by grandiose walls, intertwined with old cobbled streets where tourists gladly "get lost", it is a favorite port for big cruisers and tourists from all over the world. Kotor is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Tivat is the youngest town on the Montenegrian coast. It is located in the Bay of Boka Kotorska, only 10 kilometers from the city of Kotor. Tivat is home to a famous training ship "Jadran", which in the most beautiful way decorates Tivat waterfront. There are various legends about how Tivat got the name. Some say that Tivat was named after the Illyrian Queen Teuta, who ruled from the neighboring town Risan, but had her summer residence in Tivat. The second assumption is that Tivat is named after a Christian saint Theodorus. What is perhaps the most realistic story is that the name Tivat comes from the Celtic word "teoto", which means „the city“.
Herceg Novi is a city made of rocks, a city of the sea, walls and towers, a city of sun and flower gardens. Herceg Novi is located at the entrance to Boka Kotorska, 51 km from Dubrovnik and 43 km from Kotor. One of the sunniest cities in the Adriatic coast, this city welcomes guests who "sail" into the Bay of Boka Kotorska. Surrounded by the high mountain of Orjen, decorated with greenery and mimosas, palm trees and the open sea. Herceg Novi is home to the tall palm trees that sailors brought from their long voyages; this is home of magnolia, eucalyptus and agave.
One of the most famous and expensive places in Montenegro is certainly Budva. Budva is called the Queen of the Mediterranean, Montenegrin Monte Carlo and the capital of Montenegrin tourism - what this city really is. This city is adorned with the old city walls, which was ruled by the Venetians, modern discos and clubs, casinos, the best nightlife in Montenegro, luxury hotels and villas. The Budva Riviera is 25 kilometers long and along the coast there are some of the most beautiful Montenegrin sandy beaches.
Bar is a port city. It is located 60 km from Kotor, and only 30 km from the city of Ulcinj. Bar is known for a large number of olive trees, olive oil, Turkish coffee, the old fortress above the city, the only railway line in Montenegro close to the sea, the port of Bar, the ferry Bar-Bari etc. Bar is known as the city of rich cultural heritage, a city of different nationalities, cultures and traditions. The bar overlooks the open sea and is adorned with beautiful beaches, coves and clear blue sea water.