History of Kotor

History of Kotor



First inhabitants of Kotor were the Romans. At that time, the city of Kotor was called Acruvium and it was first mentioned in 168 BC. The walls of Kotor were first built by the Illyrians and Romans, but the "final touch" was given by the Venetians. Emperor Justinian I built a fort above the city in 535 BC.

In 800 the city was invaded by the Saracens. In 809 BC, the Cathedral of St. Trifun was constructed. After his burial, the remains of Saint Trifun were brought to Kotor from Constantinople. Throughout its rich history, Kotor was under the rule of Zeta in Serbia, when the city was one of the most significant trading cities in the State of Nemanjici. Later, the city was under the Bosnian, Hungarian, Austrian, French and Venetian rule.
Kotor was an independent city-republic from 1391 to 1420, but because of the increasing number of Ottoman attacks, the city sought assistance of the Republic of Venice. During this period, Kotor fell under the rule of the mighty Venetian Republic. Kotor was under the rule of the Venetian Republic from 1420 until 1797. The golden age of Kotor - the time of construction of magnificent palaces, ships, the flourishing of maritime affairs, commerce, crafts - has been associated with almost 300 years of the Venetian rule. Thanks to a good fortification system, the Ottomans never conquered the city.

Kotor can be reached through three gates. The most famous one is the Sea Gate, built in front of the old town - a direct entrance to the old town (from the sea side). The other two doors are the Gurdic door and the North door, the so-called Tabacina.
The walls that surround the city are 5 kilometers long, and at the top of these walls, after climbing 1,350 steps, at 280m above the sea level, lies the fortress of San Giovanni with an astonishing view of Kotor and the entire bay.
The Kotor squares, there were 7 in total, were the meeting points of Kotor inhabitants, a place for selling fruits, vegetables and weapons as well. Within the walls of this small town there are 2 Orthodox and 6 Catholic churches, a Franciscan monastery, a cathedral, a theater, a cinema, an old pharmacy from the 13th century, an old clock on the main square (which is a symbol of all medieval cities), noble palaces, a school, a college as well as the narrowest street in the town called "Let me pass."
Kotor is home to a 500 year old carnival under masks, home to delicious cuisine and to Bokelj Nights. The Kotor Navy was established in Kotor in 809 as the oldest seafaring fraternity in the Adriatic, and is one of the oldest in the world.
In 809, when the relics of St. Trypun arrived in Kotor, the Kotorans proclaimed him the patron saint of the city. The same year the Boka Navy was founded - Boka Navy also being the keeper of the keys to the city of Kotor. Since its founding until today, the Boka Navy has had a memorial, a military and ahumanitarian purpose, and as such, it has operated under one motto only: Faith and Honor!

On April 15 1979, Kotor was hit by a catastrophic earthquake that destroyed most of the old town. Kotorans managed to rebuild the destroyed buildings using the damaged stones. After the earthquake, each republic of the former Yugoslavia earmarked a part of the funds to help the town of Kotor in the reonstruction. And this is something that Kotor has never forgotten, so the entrance to the city walls is free of charge for all the local tourists, that is visitors from the countries of former Yugoslavia. Kotor has been under UNESCO protection since 1979, thus proclaimimg any additional construction is illegal, leaving the city remain the same forever.

Interesting facts: In Italy (the Veneto region) there is an old humorous saying that at some point every man says to his woman, through which it can be noted how important Kotor was in the Venetian Republic:
"You cost me more than the walls of Kotor".

Tourist destinations in Montenegro:


Perast is home to some of the most beautiful palaces along the Adriatic coast. This is the city of steep stone streets, flower giards, the city of churchs, the city of closed jalouisies, tncredible islands of St. George and Our Lady of the Rocks, the city of legends, seafaring and glorious captains. Least, but not last, Perast is home of the famous Peras Cake. This old baroque city has attracted many writers, poets, actors and painters with his charm. Intoxicated, they become in love with this little miracle located on the Adriatic shore.

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Risan is the oldest settlement in Boka Kotorska. It is located at the northern point of the bay. Risan is an ideal place for holidays for young people, but also for families with children, because this village is never crowded even during the summer season. The most important tourist attractions in Risan are Roman mosaics from the third century BC, Monastery Banja, the church of St. George and the church of St. Peter and Paul. On the hill Gradina above Risan, there are the remains of the old Illyrian castle.

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Boka Kotorska

Boka Kotorska or simply Boka (in Italian Bocce di Cattaro) is the largest bay of the Adriatic Sea. It consists of four bays: The Bay of Herceg Novi, Tivat Bay, Risan Bay and Kotor Bay. The length of Bokakotorska Bay is 116 kilometers. The maximum depth of the bay is 60 meters. Boka Kotorska is the only fjord in the Mediterranean, surrounded by high mountains Orjen and Lovcen. There are countless small fishing villages and 3 major cities in the bay: Herceg Novi, Tivat and Kotor, as well as 7 islands: Mamula, Our Lady of Mercy, Vedvedje, Saint George, Our Lady of the Rocks and the Island of Flowers. There are also two peninsulas here: Luštica and Vrmac.

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Kotor is a medieval old town known as Montenegrin Venice. Kotor is one of the best preserved old towns and is located in one of the 25 most beautiful bays in the world. The town is 13 centuries old, but on the site of present-day Kotor, people settled much earlier. Surrounded by grandiose walls, intertwined with old cobbled streets where tourists gladly "get lost", it is a favorite port for big cruisers and tourists from all over the world. Kotor is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

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Tivat is the youngest town on the Montenegrian coast. It is located in the Bay of Boka Kotorska, only 10 kilometers from the city of Kotor. Tivat is home to a famous training ship "Jadran", which in the most beautiful way decorates Tivat waterfront. There are various legends about how Tivat got the name. Some say that Tivat was named after the Illyrian Queen Teuta, who ruled from the neighboring town Risan, but had her summer residence in Tivat. The second assumption is that Tivat is named after a Christian saint Theodorus. What is perhaps the most realistic story is that the name Tivat comes from the Celtic word "teoto", which means „the city“.

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Herceg Novi

Herceg Novi is a place of steps, sea and walls, a city of sunlight and flower gardens. It is situated at the entrance to the bay of Kotor, 51km from Dubrovnik and around 43 kilometers from Kotor. As one of the sunniest cities in the Adriatic, it is the first to greet guests who venture into the bay of Kotor, surrounded by the tall Orjen mountain, and beautified by lush greenery and mimosas, palm trees and the open sea. Herceg Novi is home to many tall palm trees brought in by sailors from their distant destinations, but is also home to magnolias, eucalipus and agave.

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Budva is surely one of Montenegro’s most famous and expensive holiday destinations. Known as the Queen of the Mediterranean, as well as the Monte Carlo of Montenegro, this city is rightly considered the capital of Montenegrin tourism. The city is famous for its historical district, once controlled by the Republic of Venice, but also for its modern night clubs, casinos, luxurious villas and hotels, but, most of all, it boasts the best night life experience in Montenegro. The Budva Riviera stretches over a distance of 25km, each step covered by some of the most beautiful sandy beaches Montenegro has to offer.

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Bar is a pier town with an open sea view, located 60km from Kotor and 30km from Ulcinj. It is famous for its large number of olive trees, olive oil, Turkish coffee, its old fortress overlooking the city, for the only railway line in Montenegro that passes just next to the sea shore, for the Bar pier, the Bar-Bari ferry. In addition to this, the town is renowned for its history, the diversity of ethnicities and cultures that populate it, and for its rich tradition. Bar boasts beautiful open sea beaches, coves and clear, blue water.

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Podgorica is the capital of Montenegro, located in the very center of the country. It is the main economic, trade and university center with the largest number of inhabitants of any city in the country, with over 200 thousand inhabitants. Podgorica is situated at the foot of Mount Gorica, and the local people also call it “the old lady”.

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At the foot of the Lovćen mountain, located 670 meters above sea level in the karst field of the same name, lies the once-capital of Montenegro, Cetinje. With its many churches, museums, monasteries and embassies, the city is dubbed “Museum City”, and is considered to be one of the most beautiful cities in Montenegro. with its turbulent history of warfare and destruction, the city will lure all who look at it in with its unavoidable beauty and energy. Cetinje is the city of Montenegrin rulers, metropolitan bishops and kings, as well as the city of bravery and valiance, which is exactly what all Montenegrins are known for.

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Ulcinj is located at the very edge of the Montenegrin sea shore, near the Albanian border, and is the souternmost city in Montenegro. Ulcinj is one of the oldest cities in the Adriatic, with a history dating back more than 2000 years. It was always a place where different cultures met, the Oriental and Western mostly, which makes its cultural and historical diversity even richer and all the more interesting even today. Ulcinj is home to Montenegrin paradise on earth, the Ada Bojana, a 13km-long sandy beach, where some of the most beautiful sunsets can be seen. As a border town, Ulcinj’s populace is diverse, with the majority of inhabitants being of Albanian descent. This means that it is as likely to hear Albanian as it is to hear Montenegrin in the city.

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Durmitor is located in the north of Montenegro, a 5-hour drive from the seaside. A short drive through the beautiful landscape takes you from the sea to the mountainside, a lake, as well as colder and cleaner air. Durmitor and Žabljak are popular tourist destinations all year round. The cold winter, when skiing is particularly popular, summer, when tourists bathe in the Black Lake and walk along the mountain, and spring, when forest flowers on the slopes of the Durmitor mountain display their most beautiful colors, are all great opportunities to visit the mountain. Žabljak and Durmitor offer everyone enjoyment and fun activities.

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Skadar Lake

The Skadar Lake is the largest lake in Montenegro and in the Balkans. The lake takes up a surface area of around 369,7 km2, 221,8 of which belong to Montenegro, and the remaining 147,9 to Albania. The length of the lake, measured between Vranjine in Montenegro and Shkodra in Albania, measures around 40 kilometers. The lake is a cryptodepression, which means that its depths are beneath sea level. The lake’s deepest point measures around 6 meters deep. The Bojana river starts in the Skadar Lake, ending its journey in the Adriatic Sea. The Skadar Lake is rich in flora and fauna, as well as islands, cultural monuments and beautiful, pure natural wonder. In 1983, the lake and its surrounding area became a national park.

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